Team Martinez visits Iolani Palace, Honolulu, Hawaii (2018)


Kamehameha III with Queen Kamala to the left and Victoria Kamāmalu (original owner of the first palace) to the right with future monarchs Kamehameha IV, top left and Kamehameha V, top right

Iolani Palace was the royal residence of the rulers of the Kingdom of Hawaii (1845-1893), beginning with King Kamehameha III and concluding with Queen Liliuokalani.


After the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy by the wealthy ruling class of American planters, the palace was used as a capitol building for the Provisional Government, Republic, and Territorial governments until 1969.

Upon the overthrow of the monarchy by the Committee of Safety in 193, U.S. military troops took possession of the palace. Many of the royal families contents were auctioned off. Queen Liliuokalani was imprisoned for 9 months on the second floor of the palace.

Iolani Palace stands as a proud tribute to Hawaiian monarchy and history. In addition, the palace is also a sad reminder of the imperialism era expansion of the United States in the late 19th century.


Posted in Personal Photographs, U.S. History | Leave a comment

Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument, New Mexico, March 2018


Located between Sante Fe and Albuquerque, New Mexico is KashaKatuwe Tent Rocks National Monument, famous for its scenic cone shaped formations, composed of pumice, ash deposits from volcanic eruptions 6–7 million years ago. Millions of years of weathering have added the second finishing touches that provide this geographic marvel with its finishing touches. Although, it is still a natural work in progress.


Posted in Personal Photographs, world geography | Leave a comment

National Museum of Nuclear Science & History, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 2018


Very educational and interesting museum, unfortunately due to the nature of most of the exhibits, not very cheerful, extremely sobering.

The museum has done an excellent job of telling the story of America’s venture into nuclear power. Great attention to the Manhattan Project, World War II, and the Cold War.

I was impressed with the collection of vintage aircraft and missiles in the back lot of the facility.


Recreation of Manhattan Project development rooms. The Manhattan Project was America’s secret program of developing an atomic bomb during WWII.


Two leaders of the Manhattan Project: Professor Oppenheimer and General Groves


Recreations: The “Device” – the first atomic bomb created and detonated in the deserts of New Mexico called the Trinity Test. The worlds first nuclear explosion took place on July 16, 1945.


Fat Man and Little Boy were the two atomic bombs built by the Manhattan Project. The bombs would by loaded on B-29’s. The first bomb “Little Boy” would be dropped over Hiroshima, Japan on the aircraft “The Enola Gay” on August 6, 1945, the second device “Fat Man” would be dropped over Nagasaki, Japan on August 9, 1945. Japan would surrender shortly thereafter bringing an end to WWII.


The creation of atomic bombs after WWII by the United States, and later the Soviet Union would lead a period of nuclear competition between both countries called the Cold War. Both countries were certain that the other would strike against the other. High paranoia swept across both nations.

I vividly remember as a child in elementary school participating in bomb drills to prepare from a possible Soviet attack.


Excellent collection of vintage aircraft and missile delivery systems:


Posted in Cold War, Personal Photographs, WWII Era | Leave a comment

Emancipation Proclamation Political Cartoons

Political Cartoons – Emancipation Proclamation

Click on the links below to download the political cartoons and the box analysis form.

us history emancipation proclamation political cartoons

box model analysis template

Posted in Civil War and Reconstruction Era, U.S. History | Leave a comment

Civil War: The First Confiscation Act of 1861


Click on the link below to download the primary source document: First Confiscation Act of 1861.

us history first confiscation act

Note: The First Confiscation Act of 1861 was passed in response to the many slaves escaping to the front lines, the Union Army issued this act to provide a rationale for the freedom of these men and women.

Excerpt from the First Confiscation Act of 1861: “Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That if, during the present or any future insurrection against the Government of the United States, after the President of the United States shall have declared, by proclamation, that the laws of the United States are opposed, and the execution thereof obstructed, by combinations too powerful to be suppressed by the ordinary course of judicial proceedings, or by the power vested in the marshals by law, any person or persons, his, her, or their agent, attorney, or employé, shall purchase or acquire, sell or give, any property of whatsoever kind or description, with intent to use or employ the same, or suffer the same to be used or employed, in aiding, abetting, or promoting such insurrection or resistance to the laws, or any person or persons engaged therein; or if any person or persons, being the owner or owners of any such property, shall knowingly use or employ, or consent to the use or employment of the same as aforesaid, all such property is hereby declared to be lawful subject of prize and capture wherever found; and it shall be the duty of the President of the United States to cause the same to be seized, confiscated, and condemned.”

Posted in Civil War and Reconstruction Era, U.S. History | Leave a comment

1856 Republican Party Platform

Image result for republican party platform 1856

Campaign leaflet critical of the new Republican Party.

The primary argument over the future of slavery did not revolve around abolition, but rather the expansion of slavery in the West. The Republican Party took a staunch position against the expansion of slavery.

Excerpt from the 1856 Republican Party Platform:”…..Resolved: That, with our Republican fathers, we hold it to be a self-evident truth, that all men are endowed with the inalienable right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, and that the primary object and ulterior design of our Federal Government were to secure these rights to all persons under its exclusive jurisdiction; that, as our Republican fathers, when they had abolished Slavery in all our National Territory, ordained that no person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law, it becomes our duty to maintain this provision of the Constitution against all attempts to violate it for the purpose of establishing Slavery in the Territories of the United States by positive legislation, prohibiting its existence or extension therein. That we deny the authority of Congress, of a Territorial Legislation, of any individual, or association of individuals, to give legal existence to Slavery in any Territory of the United States, while the present Constitution shall be maintained.

Resolved: That the Constitution confers upon Congress sovereign powers over the Territories of the United States for their government; and that in the exercise of this power, it is both the right and the imperative duty of Congress to prohibit in the Territories those twin relics of barbarism–Polygamy, and Slavery.

Resolved: That while the Constitution of the United States was ordained and established by the people, in order to “form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty,” and contain ample provision for the protection of the life, liberty, and property of every citizen, the dearest Constitutional rights of the people of Kansas have been fraudulently and violently taken from them….”

Click on the link below to download the primary source document:

Republican Party Platform of 1856


Posted in Antebellum Reform, Civil War and Reconstruction Era, U.S. History | Leave a comment

Frederick Douglass: Sudden Revolution in Northern Thought (1861) Primary Source Document

Primary Source Document: Sudden Revolution in Northern Thought (1861)

Douglass addresses the complicated situation of abolitionists during the Civil War.

Excerpt: “But what a change now greets us! The Government is aroused, the dead North is alive, and its divided people united. Never was a change so sudden, so universal, and so portentous. The whole North, East and West is in arms. Drums are beating, men are enlisting, companies forming, regiments marching, banners are flying, and money is pouring into the national treasury to put an end to the slaveholding rebellion.”

Click on link below to download the full primary source document:

us history douglass on abolitionists during the Civil War

Posted in Civil War and Reconstruction Era, U.S. History | Leave a comment