Team Martinez visits the Grand Canyon (2015)

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Fort Sumter Fallen – New York Times article (April 15, 1861)

Minolta DSC

Minolta DSC

New York Times article (April 15, 1861) – Charleston, South Carolina

FORT SUMPTER (sic) FALLEN.; PARTICULARS OF THE BOMBARDMENT. The Fort On Fire and the Garrison Exhausted. NO ATTEMPT AT REINFORCEMENT. The Cessation of Firing and the Capitulation. NO LIVES LOST ON EITHER SIDE.  Major Anderson and his Men Coming to New-York. How the News was Received in Washington. Call for Seventy-Five Thousand Militia. AN EXTRA SESSION OF CONGRESS War Feeling Throughout the Northern and Western States. FORT PICKENS REINFORCED.

CHARLESTON, Saturday, April 13 — Evening. Major ANDERSON has surrendered, after hard fighting, commencing at 4 1/2 o’clock yesterday morning, and continuing until five minutes to 1 to-day. The American flag has given place to the Palmetto of South Carolina. You have received my previous dispatches concerning the fire and the shooting away of the flagstaff. The latter event is due to Fort Moultrie, as well as the burning of the fort, which resulted from one of the hot shots fired in the morning. During the conflagration, Gen. BEAUREGARD sent a boat to Major ANDERSON, with offers of assistance, the bearers being Colonels W.P. MILES, and ROGER PRYOR, of Virginia, and LEE. But before it reached him, a flag of truce had been raised. Another boat then put off, containing Ex-Gov. MANRING, Major D.R. JONES and Col. CHARLES ALLSTON, to arrange the terms of surrender, which were the same as those offered on the 11th inst. These were official. They stated that all proper facilities would be afforded for the removal of Major ANDERSON and his command, together with the company arms and property, and all private property, to any post in the United States he might elect. The terms were not, therefore, unconditional. Major ANDERSON stated that he surrendered his sword to Gen. BEAUREGARD as the representative of the Confederate Government. Gen. BEAUREGARD said he would not receive it from so brave a man. He says Major ANDERSON made a staunch fight, and elevated himself in the estimation of every true Carolinian. During the fire, when Major ANDERSON’S flagstaff was shot away, a boat put off from Morris Island, carrying another American flag for him to fight under — a noteworthy instance of the honor and chivalry of South Carolina Seceders, and their admiration for a brave man. The scene in the city after the raising of the-flag of truce and the surrender is indescribable; the people were perfectly wild. Men on horseback rode through the streets proclaiming the news, amid the greatest enthusiasm. On the arrival of the officers from the fort they were marched through the streets, followed by an immense crowd, hurrahing, shouting, and yelling with excitement. Several fire companies were immediately sent down to Fort Sumpter to put out the fire, and any amount of assistance was offered. A regiment of eight hundred men has just arrived from the interior, and has been ordered to Morris Island, in view of an attack from the fleet which may be expected to-night. Six vessels are reported off the bar, but the utmost indignation is expressed against them for not coming to the assistance of Major ANDERSON when he made signals of distress. The soldiers on Morris Island jumped on the guns every shot they received from Fort Sumpter while thus disabled, and gave three cheers for Major ANDERSON and groans for the fleet. Col. LUCAS, of the Governor’s Staff, has just returned from Fort Sumpter, and says Major ANDERSON told him he had pleasanter recollections of Fort Moultrie than Fort Sumpter. Only five men were wounded, one seriously. The flames have destroyed everything. Both officers and soldiers were obliged to lay on their faces in the casemates, to prevent suffocation. The explosions heard in the city were from small piles of shell, which ignited from the heat. The effect of the shot upon the fort was tremendous. The walls were battered in hundreds of places, but no breach was made. Major ANDERSON expresses himself much pleased that no lives had been sacrificed, and says that to Providence alone is to be attributed the bloodless victory. He compliments the firing of the Carolinians, and the large number of exploded shells lying around attests their effectiveness. The number of soldiers in the fort was about seventy, besides twenty-five workmen, who assisted at the guns. His stock of provisions was almost exhausted, however. He would have been starved out in two more days. The entrance to the fort is mined, and the officers were told to be careful, even after the surrender, on account of the heat, lest it should explode. A boat from the squadron, with a flag of truce, has arrived at Morris Island, bearing a request to be allowed to come and take Major Anderson and his forces. An answer will be given to-morrow at 9 o’clock. The public feeling against the fleet is very strong, it being regarded as cowardly to make not even an attempt to aid a fellow officer. Had the surrender not taken place Fort Sumpter would have been stormed to-night. The men are crazy for a fight. The bells have been chiming all day, gun firing, ladies waving handkerchiefs, people cheering, and citizens making themselves generally demonstrative. It is regarded as the greatest day in the history of South Carolina.

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The Secession Menace – New York Times article (July 24, 1860) with Analysis Questions

This NY Times article provides an argument for secession in anticipation of a possible Republican Party presidential win by Abraham Lincoln in 1860.

The Secession Menace NY Times July 24 1860 : Click on link to download primary source document.
Southern Menace NY Times secession analysis activity : Click on link to download analysis questions.

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Abram Lincoln, of Illinois, Nominated for President (N.Y. Times article) – May 19, 1860

Abraham Lincoln
This New York Times article features the announcement of the Republican Party’s presidential nomination of Abraham Lincoln.

New York Times, May 19, 1860

THE REPUBLICAN TICKET FOR 1860.; Abram (sic) Lincoln, of Illinois, Nominated for President. The Late Senatorial Contest in Illinois to be Re-Fought on a Wider Field. Hannibal Hamlin, of Maine, the Candidate for Vice-President. Disappointment of the Friends of Mr. Seward. INTENSE EXCITEMENT AND ENTHUSIASM. Reception of the Nominations in this City. How They are Hailed Throughout the North.

Special Dispatch to the New-York Times. CHICAGO, Friday, May 18. The work of the Convention is ended. The youngster who, with ragged trousers, used barefoot to drive his father’s oxen and spend his days in splitting rails, has risen to high eminence, and ABRAM LINCOLN, of Illinois, is declared its candidate for President by the National Republican Party. This result was effected by the change of votes in the Pennsylvania, New-Jersey, Vermont, and Massachusetts Delegations. Mr. SEWARD’s friends assert indignantly, and with a great deal of feeling, that they were grossly deceived and betrayed. The recusants endeavored to mollify New-York by offering her the Vice-Presidency, and agreeing to support any man she might name, but they declined the position, though they remain firm in the ranks, having moved to make LINCOLN’s nomination unanimous. Mr. SEWARD’s friends feel greatly chagrined and disappointed. Western pride is gratified by this nomination, which plainly indicates the departure of political supremacy from the Atlantic States. The prominent candidates for Vice-Presidency were Messrs. HICKMAN, BANKS, CLAY and REEDEE. Pennsylvania desired HICKMAN. New-York, in order to resent the conduct of Pennsylvania, Massachusetts and Kentucky, favored Mr. HAMLIN, of Maine; and on the second ballet, cast her whole strength for him, and it was owing to this, and the desire to conciliate New-York, that his nomination was so promptly secured. Immense enthusiasm exists, and everything here would seem to indicate a spirited and successful canvass. The city is alive with processions, meetings, music and noisy demonstrations. One hundred guns were fired this evening. The Convention was the most enthusiastic ever known in the country, and if one were to judge from appearances here, the ticket will sweep the country. Great inquiry has been made this afternoon into the history of Mr. LINCOLN. The only evidence that he has a history as yet discovered, is that he had a stump canvass with Mr. DOUGLAS, in which he was beaten. He is not very strong at the West, but it is unassailable in his private character. Many of the delegates went home this evening by the 9 o’clock train. Others leave in the morning. A grand excursion is planned to Rock Island and Davenport, and another to Milwaukee and Madison, and still another over the Illinois Central, over the prairies. These will detain a great many of the delegates and the editorial fraternity. The Wigwam is as full as ever — filled now by thousands of original LINCOLN men, who they “always knew” would be nominated, and who first suggested his name, who are shouting themselves hoarse over the nomination. “What was it WEBSTER said when TAYLOR was nominated?” ask the opponents of LINCOLN. “What was the result of the election?” retort LINCOLN’s friends. Thirty-three guns were fired from the top of the [???]remont House. The dinner referred to in Tuesday evening’s dispatch was a private one, and I regret that inaccurate reading of it should have misrepresented the position of the delegation as regards Mr. GREELEY. His right to act as he deemed best politically, was not denied, and consequently there was no defence of his career needed. Massachusetts delegates, with their brass band, are parading the streets, calling at the various headquarters of the other delegations, serenading and bidding them farewell. “Hurrah for LINCOLN and HAMLIN — Illinois and Maine!” is the universal shout, and sympathy for the bottom dog is the all-pervading sentiment. The “Wide-Awakes,” numbering about two thousand men, accompanied by thousands of citizens, have a grand torch-light procession. The German Republican Club has another. The office of the Press and Tribune is brilliantly illuminated, and has a large transparency over the door, saying, “For President, Honest Old ABE.” A bonfire thirty feet in circumference burns in front of the Tremont House, and illumines the city for miles around. The city is one blaze of illumination. Hotels, stores and private residences, shining with hundreds of patriotic dips. ENOUGH. HOWARD.

Joseph Howard, New York Times, May 19, 1860

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The Cowardly Assault on Mr. Sumner – New York Times article (May 23, 1856)

New York Times article regarding the Caning of Senator Sumner:
Senator Sumner     Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts

New York Times
May 23, 1856

Immediately after the adjournment of Congress, today, PRESTON S. BROOKS, of South Carolina, a member of the Lower House, entered the Senate Chamber, and approaching the seat of Mr. SUMNER, struck him a powerful blow with a cane, at the same time accusing him of libeling South Carolina and his great bearded relative, Senator BUTLER. Mr. SUMNER fell from the effects of the blow, and BROOKS continued beating him. Mr. SUMNER soon recovered sufficiently to call for help, but no one interposed, and BROOKS repeated the blows until Mr. SUMNER was deprived of the power of speech. Some eyewitnesses state that BROOKS struck him as many as fifteen or twenty times. Mr. SUMNER was sitting in an armchair when the assault was made, and had no opportunity to defend himself. After his assailant desisted, he was carried to his room, but the extent of his injuries are not yet ascertained. Various opinions on the subject are expressed, many applauding and some denouncing the assault as a cowardly attempt to beat down freedom of speech. Mr. BROOKS has been complained of by Mr. Wm. [name illegible] on whose oath Justice HOLLINGSHEAD required BROOKS to give bail in the sum of [amount illegible] as security for his appearance tomorrow afternoon. Mr. SUMNER has several severe but not dangerous wounds on his head. The cane used by BROOKS was shattered to pieces by the blows. When the attack was made there were, probably, fifteen or twenty persons present, including Messrs. CRITTENDEN, FOSTER, TOOMBS, FITZPATRICK, MURRAY, MORGAN, and other members of Congress, together with Governor GORMAN, several offices of the Senate and some strangers. The attack was so sudden and so unexpected that Mr. SUMNER had no opportunity whatever to place himself in a defensive attitude. The first blow given him by Mr. BROOKS stunned him, and the thick gutta-percha stick which was used by Mr. BROOKS, was broken into many pieces by the time the assault terminated. Messrs. CRITTENDEN, TOOMBS, MURRAY, and others interfered as soon as they could, and probably prevented further damage. The greatest excitement prevailed. Mr. SUMNER sank perfectly unconscious to the floor, where he lay bloody and dreadfully bruised, till raised by his friends. Mr. Sumner s physicians say his wounds are the most severe flesh ones that they ever saw on a man s head, and deny his friends admission to him.


caning of senator charles sumner


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A review of Uncle Tom’s Cabin – July 16, 1853 (NY Times) Primary Source Analysis Activity

uncle toms cabin

This post consists of a literary review of Uncle Tom’s Cabin which appeared on July 16, 1863 in the New York Times. In addition, a set of primary source analysis questions are accompany the article.

Uncle Tom’s Cabin Primary Source review 4th paper NY Times : Click link to download primary source article.

Uncle Tom’s Cabin review Primary Source Analysis Activity : Click link to download analysis question activity.

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“Tear Down this Wall” – President Ronald Reagan Speech (1987)

President Reagan’s Speech at the Brandenburg Gate, Berlin
Records of the U.S. Information Agency
National Archives Identifier: 54682

In 1987, while in West Germany, President Reagan’s famous “Mr. Gorbachev – tear down this wall” speech at the Brandenburg speech covered such topics as the removal of the Berlin Wall, East-West relations, and arms control.

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